Working Papers

Working papers

Working or research papers are conducted by groups of 2 or 3 students. The goal is to mobilize a toolbox of knowledge and techniques developed in class to understand the driving forces at stake behind the consumption of a specific dish, food product, or service. Working papers are conducted under the supervison of Professor Richard C. Delerins.



Authors:

  • Sara ANTONIOTTI (BOCCONI 2021)

  • Aurora BELMONT (ESSEC 2021)

  • Laura OPPICI (BOCCONI 2021)


Keywords:

“bread” - “homemade bread”“baking” - “baking lockdown” - “bread innovations” - “bread in France” - “bread in Italy” - “Covid-19 impact”

Discipline: Marketing, Consumer behavior

Date: May 2021




When the Bread Consumer Becomes Baker

A research about values and trends in homemade bread baking during the Covid-19 in France and Italy, and predictions about their impact on bread consumption patterns, innovations and the bakeries of the future


Abstract


This paper investigates how the Covid-19 pandemic is reconfiguring the field of bread consumption in Italy and France at three levels: consumer behavior, industry innovations and marketing implications for bakeries. The first section presents the outcomes of a consumers’ behavior research that crossed three different data sources (Google Trends statistics, articles, Instagram posts). Data suggest that the widespread practice of baking during the 2020 lockdown has generated new values and motivations driving bread consumption patterns in France and Italy, thanks to a more comprehensive understanding of bread, which is no longer perceived just as a food for the body, but also for the eyes and the mind, not only for commensality occasions, but which is also linked with the personal inner dimension of the individual. The second section provides a snapshot of the most relevant innovations developed in recent years in the leavened products sector. Subsequently, it attempts to predict how such advancements are likely to be accelerated and re-imagined in the light of the new perception of bread that French and Italian consumers gradually adopted since the beginning of the pandemic. The final part devises the idea of the “Bakery 3.0”: a revolutionary bakery concept that, leveraging on available innovations, responds to the new consumers’ perception of bread by offering a 360° experience of the product which combines ingredients’ quality and diversity with aesthetic research, knowledge with entertainment, and shared and individual experiences also at digital level.



Authors:

  • Khushboo ARORA (ESSEC 2022)

  • Folco FACCHINI (BOCCONI 2021 – ESSEC 2022)

  • Benoit HERVIO (IMHI – ESSEC 2021)

  • Ghazal KHANNA (ESSEC 2022)


Keywords:

Culinarization Process, Globalization, Adaptation, Culinary Culture, Ingredients, Recipe

Discipline: Marketing, Consumer behavior

Date: May 2021




The Journey of a Dish around the world

Understanding the culinarization processes


Abstract


The paper is about the culinarization process which is defined as the process of how a traditional dish of a country's cuisine lands and fits to the cuisine of another country, changing its original recipe, adapting to the local food script and acquiring a different social meaning. In the analysis to better understand the core elements of the culinarization process, four typical dishes (croissant, carbonara pasta, chicken tikka masala, and tacos) from four different countries (France, Italy, India, and Mexico, respectively) were considered and we describe how these dishes are perceived and prepared in two other culinary cultures different from that of origin. The results are presented in a matrix that quantifies how much the culinary recipes differ from the original one, both for the core ingredients and for the additional or optional ones. Finally, we understand which of the four dishes analyzed was successful in its culinarization process in the selected countries and if it has the right characteristics to be culinarized in other culinary cultures as well.



Authors:

  • Inès AKPINAR (ESSEC 2023)

  • Aurore KEUNEBROEK (ESSEC 2022)

  • Olga MAGNEEVA (ESSEC 2021)


Keywords:

Vegetarianism, Social practices, Commensality, Family, Adaptation

Discipline: Marketing, Consumer behavior

Date: May 2021


How does Vegetarianism impact social practices related to food?

Eating and cooking food in today’s France


Abstract


The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of vegetarianism on social practices in France: how vegetarianism changes the notion of commensality in French culture and food-related family practices. We conduct a qualitative analysis of values, types of dishes, social practices associated with vegetarianism, using social media. Results indicate that the affirmation of a new set of values and practices in social circles tends to threaten or even break the social link between people eating together, and that those people adopt different kinds of strategies to navigate this new dynamics that can be linked with the values behind their vegetarianism.



Authors:

  • Aditi Goenka (ESSEC 2023),

  • Eve Lafon (MS GAISC 2021),

  • Marie Violet (MS GAISC 2021)


Keywords:

Baby food - Customer - Social networks - Homemade - Organic

Discipline: Marketing, Consumer behavior

Geography: France, India

Date: May 2021



Culinary Expectations for our Babies

How customer's preferences’ evolution impacted baby food in France and India ?


Abstract


This paper focuses on baby food, defined as all food products intended for the feeding of young children in India and France. The scope of the study is on children of age group 0-4 years and the diverse food products. As the consumers and customers in our target research are different; consumer- babies, customers- parents, our research is based on the customer aka parents’ based in India and France. Using the Customer insights we tried to understand the trends and related brands’ responses. We also tried to draw a comparison between India and France in our study of the market. The result showed similarities in safety concerns related to the product, both markets are looking towards new recipes including enhanced sources of proteins. However, they are different in terms of extent of homemade food preference, vegetarianism, taste exploration with the food products and eco-friendly aspects to the product and packaging. Yet, in both the countries, even in India we could see that brands keep innovating to grow the market. The market in India is limited in scope and reach compared to France but both see an explosion of organic foods, local products and convenience in baby foods after learning from the market trends. The French market in baby foods is more extensive in product range but India is growing as well.



Authors:


Juan HAN,

Diana MAHFOUZ,

Audrey RANDAZZO

Topics: Expansion, Corporate Strategy, Branding and Narratives, Marketing, Diversification, Innovation, Strategy, Competition, Competitive strategy.

Discipline: Marketing, Consumer behavior
Geography: France, India and China

Date: 15 April 2020

Lengh: 35p.



Breakfast 2.0

How Millennials are reinventing the way we eat breakfast?

Abstract


As the millennial breakfast is becoming more and more popular among young generations, we studied the millennial breakfast consumption codes and principles behind their breakfast eating habits. To start with, we dig out researches about the history of breakfast and related primary resources, such as the mainstream social media, blogs and Instagram. We found that millennial breakfast is very diversified and cross-cultural. But the “typical” breakfast was not identified.


That’s why, through deeper analysis of the primary resources, we thought it could be relevant to present all the various insights through a mapping, in which various dimensions were accentuated. Emotions, human state of mind, and values were presented and various key ingredients were placed on the food mapping. Afterwards, we found that various clusters were created: Rose & Yellow, Ultimate Winter Tradition, Guilty Pleasure, Trendy Catchy, Boost my Health, Bakery 2.0. Those clusters divide millennials into different eating habits and individualized values. Each millennial can “adhere” to a certain type of breakfast depending on his mood, expressed values, and opinion. Thus, millennials, are re-inventing breakfast with their own self expression and values. They are “breaking” traditions, living the life the way they want, and they are truly defending the values they hold. Bringing a new energy to the whole world.


Authors:


Marie DUFOUR

Marina SOLDI

The Avocado Craze

How is Instagram changing the way we eat ?


Abstract


In just a few years, avocados have become a must have in trendy restaurant menus all over the world but most importantly on Instagram food posts. They have even reached the status of an edible symbol of an entire generation, i.e millennials. We intend to prove that the dominant explanation for this avocado craze is the powerful influence of social media on people’s eating habits.


Therefore, how is Instagram driving the globalization of avocado consumption and culinary practices? Through the analysis of Instagram posts and hashtags starring avocados, as well as the comparison to other vegetables, we have managed to identify millennials’ food consumption codes. In addition, the study of Dutch seventeenth-century still-lifes enabled us to show that the increasing aestheticization of food in the XXIst century can partly be attributed to the rise of social media in people’s lives. Last but not least, our findings on avocado consumption have also shed light on the short-lived nature of food trends on social media.



Authors:


Arunima KUMAR

Asawari SINGH

Chaat: 'Poke'ing its way in

The Street Food guide to being famous


Abstract


From A list celebrities to daily wage earners, everyone has come to enjoy street food. It has become so popular that there are now TV shows and movies that are based partially or wholly on street food. This research paper focuses on what makes a street food popular. We took the example of Poke, which is the most popular street food in the world. It went from being eaten in shacks to having restaurants solely dedicated to it.


We compared it to chaat which is one of the most popular street food in India and despite its popularity, is relatively unknown outside. The paper discusses the nuances behind each dish, its significance and the social norms behind consuming it. Through Instagram and google trends, we analyze the reasons behind the popularity or lack thereof, of the two dishes. The research paper also touches on the status of chaat in three major cities of the world. Finally, we end with some suggestions that could help chaat make a bigger splash in the food industry.